external Ķѥ᡼(RP-122)
ʥꥪ NORM Ψ Ф h/a
Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover Ash 1 1800 3 walls (3 x 4 m2), 2.5 m height, covered with gypsum wall plates, thickness 0.02 m
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Ash 0.1 1800 floor, ceiling, 2 walls (3 x 4 m2), 20 cm wall thickness, 2.5 m height
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Rock 0.3 1800 floor, ceiling, 2 walls (3 x 4 m2), 20 cm wall thickness, 2.5 m height
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Sand 0.3 1800 floor, ceiling, 2 walls (3 x 4 m2), 20 cm wall thickness, 2.5 m height
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Slag 0.3 1800 floor, ceiling, 2 walls (3 x 4 m2), 20 cm wall thickness, 2.5 m height
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Ash 1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Rock 1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Sand 1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Slag 1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Sludge(oil/gas) 0 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Ash 0.1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Rock 0.1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Sand 0.1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Slag 0.1 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Sludge(oil/gas) 0.01 1800 semi-infinite volume; shielding by a vehicle (steel, factor 2)
Road construction Ash 0.1 1800 plane 100 x 10 x 0.4m
Road construction Rock 1 1800 plane 100 x 10 x 0.4m
Road construction Sand 0.8 1800 plane 100 x 10 x 0.4m
Road construction Slag 1 1800 plane 100 x 10 x 0.4m
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Ash 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Rock 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sand 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Slag 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Ash 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Rock 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sand 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Slag 1 1800 10.000 m3, height 6 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 10 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Ash 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Rock 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sand 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Slag 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sludge(oil/gas) 0.75 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Ash 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Rock 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sand 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Slag 1 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sludge(oil/gas) 0.75 1800 1000 m3, height 3 m , 45 angle, truncated cone, reference person: 5 m distance from base
Transport Long distances driving Ash 1 850 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances loading Ash 1 100 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances driving Rock 1 850 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances loading Rock 1 100 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances driving Sand 1 850 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances loading Sand 1 100 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances driving Slag 1 850 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances loading Slag 1 100 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Long distances driving Sludge(oil/gas) 0.75 85 material in closed drums
Transport Long distances loading Sludge(oil/gas) 0.75 10 material in closed drums
Transport Short distances driving Ash 1 700 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances loading Ash 1 400 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances driving Rock 1 700 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances loading Rock 1 400 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances driving Sand 1 700 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances loading Sand 1 400 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances driving Slag 1 700 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances loading Slag 1 400 truck: 2 x 2 x 5 m3, 30 Mg total, shielding,
Transport Short distances driving Sludge(oil/gas) 0.75 70 material in closed drums
Transport Short distances loading Sludge(oil/gas) 0.75 40 material in closed drums
European commission, Practical use of the concepts of clearance and ezemption (Part II), EC, Belgium (2002)
 inhalation Ķѥ᡼(RP-122)
ʥꥪ NORM Ф h/a ǻ g/m3 Ƶ® m3/h Ψ
Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover Ash 1800 0.0005 1.2 1
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Ash 1800 0.0005 1.2 0.1
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Rock 1800 0.0005 1.2 0.3
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Sand 1800 0.0005 1.2 0.3
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Slag 1800 0.0005 1.2 0.3
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Ash 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Rock 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Sand 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Slag 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Sludge(oil/gas) 1800 0.001 1.2 0
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Ash 1800 0.001 1.2 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Rock 1800 0.001 1.2 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Sand 1800 0.001 1.2 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Slag 1800 0.001 1.2 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Sludge(oil/gas) 1800 0.001 1.2 0.01
Road construction Ash 1800 0.001 1.2 0.1
Road construction Rock 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Road construction Sand 1800 0.001 1.2 0.8
Road construction Slag 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Ash 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Rock 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sand 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Slag 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Ash 1800 0.0005 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Rock 1800 0.0002 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sand 1800 0.0005 1.2 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Slag 1800 0.0002 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Ash 1800 0.002 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Rock 1800 0.002 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sand 1800 0.002 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Slag 1800 0.002 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sludge(oil/gas) 180 0.001 1.2 0.75
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Ash 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Rock 1800 0.0005 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sand 1800 0.001 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Slag 1800 0.0005 1.2 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sludge(oil/gas) 0 0 1.2 0.75
Transport Long distances loading Ash 100 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Long distances loading Rock 100 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Long distances loading Sand 100 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Long distances loading Slag 100 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Long distances loading Sludge(oil/gas) 10 0 0 0.75
Transport Short distances loading Ash 400 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Short distances loading Rock 400 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Short distances loading Sand 400 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Short distances loading Slag 400 0.001 1.2 1
Transport Short distances loading Sludge(oil/gas) 40 0 0 0.75
European commission, Practical use of the concepts of clearance and ezemption (Part II), EC, Belgium (2002)
 ingestion Ķѥ᡼(RP-122)
ʥꥪ NORM Ф h/a иݼ® g/h Ψ
Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover Ash 1800 0.01 1
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Ash 1800 0.01 0.1
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Rock 1800 0.01 0.3
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Sand 1800 0.01 0.3
Building construction with NORM containing building materials Slag 1800 0.01 0.3
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Ash 1800 0.01 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Rock 1800 0.01 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Sand 1800 0.01 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Slag 1800 0.01 1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts large NORM amounts Sludge(oil/gas) 1800 0.01 0
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Ash 1800 0.01 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Rock 1800 0.01 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Sand 1800 0.01 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Slag 1800 0.01 0.1
Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts small NORM amounts Sludge(oil/gas) 1800 0.01 0.01
Road construction Ash 1800 0.01 0.1
Road construction Rock 1800 0.01 1
Road construction Sand 1800 0.01 0.8
Road construction Slag 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Ash 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Rock 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sand 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Slag 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Ash 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Rock 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sand 1800 0.01 1
Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Slag 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Ash 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Rock 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sand 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Slag 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures with processing procedures Sludge(oil/gas) 180 0.01 0.75
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Ash 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Rock 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sand 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Slag 1800 0.01 1
Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures without processing procedures Sludge(oil/gas) 0 0 0.75
Transport Long distances loading Ash 100 0.01 1
Transport Long distances loading Rock 100 0.01 1
Transport Long distances loading Sand 100 0.01 1
Transport Long distances loading Slag 100 0.01 1
Transport Long distances loading Sludge(oil/gas) 10 0 0.75
Transport Short distances loading Ash 400 0.01 1
Transport Short distances loading Rock 400 0.01 1
Transport Short distances loading Sand 400 0.01 1
Transport Short distances loading Slag 400 0.01 1
Transport Short distances loading Sludge(oil/gas) 40 0 0.75
European commission, Practical use of the concepts of clearance and ezemption (Part II), EC, Belgium (2002)
 external ̴(RP-122)
˼ ñ ʥꥪ ̴
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 7.72E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 7.13E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 1.06E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 7.61E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 6.08E-20
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 3.54E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 1.09E-08
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 1.79E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 5.9E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 8.53E-09
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 0.000000118
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 1.86E-13
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 0.00000004
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 7.79E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Long distances 7.61E-09
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 7.72E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 7.13E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 1.06E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 7.61E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 6.08E-20
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 3.54E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 1.09E-08
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 1.79E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 5.9E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 8.53E-09
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 0.000000118
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 1.86E-13
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 0.00000004
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 7.79E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Transport Short distances 7.61E-09
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 3.19E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 4.5E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 3.82E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 3.12E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 7.03E-12
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 1.48E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 8.33E-09
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 2.23E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 4.19E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 5.68E-09
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 4.74E-08
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 1.48E-12
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 1.66E-08
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 3.08E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ with processing procedures 2.86E-09
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 3.19E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 4.5E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 3.82E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 3.12E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 7.03E-12
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 1.48E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 8.33E-09
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 2.23E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 4.19E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 5.68E-09
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 4.74E-08
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 1.48E-12
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 1.66E-08
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 3.08E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Moderate quantities, indoors/ without processing procedures 2.86E-09
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 3.21E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 4.44E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 3.4E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 3.14E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 2.14E-12
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 1.48E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 8.4E-09
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 2.25E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 4.23E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 5.73E-09
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 4.77E-08
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 1.21E-12
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 1.66E-08
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 3.11E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ with processing procedures 2.86E-09
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 3.21E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 4.44E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 3.4E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 3.14E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 2.14E-12
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 1.48E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 8.4E-09
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 2.25E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 4.23E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 5.73E-09
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 4.77E-08
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 1.21E-12
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 1.66E-08
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 3.11E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Storage Large quantities, outdoors/ without processing procedures 2.86E-09
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 0.000000431
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 6.23E-09
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 3.85E-11
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 0.00000042
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 1.07E-10
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 2.07E-12
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 0.000000133
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 3.58E-08
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 6.86E-09
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 9.02E-08
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 0.000000621
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 2.23E-11
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 0.000000227
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 0.000000394
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / large NORM amounts 3.77E-08
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 0.000000431
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 6.23E-09
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 3.85E-11
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 0.00000042
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 1.07E-10
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 2.07E-12
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 0.000000133
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 3.58E-08
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 6.86E-09
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 9.02E-08
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 0.000000621
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 2.23E-11
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 0.000000227
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 0.000000394
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Disposal on a heap / landfill / small NORM amounts 3.77E-08
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 0.000000308
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 4.23E-09
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 2.78E-11
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 0.000000301
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 9.29E-11
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 1.41E-12
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 8.05E-08
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 2.14E-08
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 4.04E-09
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 5.51E-08
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 0.000000459
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 1.59E-11
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 0.000000159
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 0.0000003
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Road construction 2.89E-08
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 0.000000567
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 7.47E-09
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 5.12E-11
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 0.000000555
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 8.78E-11
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 2.69E-12
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 0.000000145
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 3.73E-08
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 7.52E-09
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 9.97E-08
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 0.000000818
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 3.4E-11
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 0.000000298
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 0.00000052
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction with NORM containing building materials 5.13E-08
U 238sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 5.33E-08
U nat (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 9.49E-10
Th 230 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 9.41E-12
Ra 226+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 5.17E-08
Pb 210+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 4.01E-11
Po 210 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 2.63E-13
U 235sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 1.92E-08
U 235+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 5.42E-09
Pa 231 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 9.48E-10
Ac 227+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 1.28E-08
Th 232sec (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 7.33E-08
Th 232 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 5.35E-12
Ra 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 2.86E-08
Th 228+ (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 4.47E-08
K 40 (Sv/h)/(kBq/kg)) Building construction using undiluted NORM as unshielded surface cover 4.49E-09
European commission, Practical use of the concepts of clearance and ezemption (Part II), EC, Belgium (2002)
 inhalation ̴(RP-122)
˼ ñ ǯ ̴
U 238sec Sv/Bq <1 0.000191
U nat Sv/Bq <1 0.0000634
Th 230 Sv/Bq <1 0.00004
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq <1 0.0000342
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq <1 0.0000184
Po 210 Sv/Bq <1 0.000018
U 235sec Sv/Bq <1 0.000395
U 235+ Sv/Bq <1 0.00003
Pa 231 Sv/Bq <1 0.000074
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq <1 0.000291
Th 232sec Sv/Bq <1 0.000276
Th 232 Sv/Bq <1 0.000054
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq <1 0.0000491
Th 228+ Sv/Bq <1 0.000173
K 40 Sv/Bq <1 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000166
U nat Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000552
Th 230 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000035
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000291
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000183
Po 210 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000014
U 235sec Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000349
U 235+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000026
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000069
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000254
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000238
Th 232 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00005
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000481
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00014
K 40 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000109
U nat Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000358
Th 230 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000024
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000191
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000112
Po 210 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000086
U 235sec Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000233
U 235+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000017
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000052
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000164
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000157
Th 232 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000037
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000032
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000883
K 40 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000707
U nat Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000225
Th 230 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000016
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000012
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000733
Po 210 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000059
U 235sec Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000162
U 235+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000011
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000039
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000112
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000106
Th 232 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000026
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00002
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000597
K 40 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000615
U nat Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000191
Th 230 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000015
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00001
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000601
Po 210 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000051
U 235sec Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000145
U 235+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000092
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000036
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0001
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000925
Th 232 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000025
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000016
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000515
K 40 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq > 17 0.000057
U nat Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000178
Th 230 Sv/Bq > 17 0.000014
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000953
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000569
Po 210 Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000043
U 235sec Sv/Bq > 17 0.000133
U 235+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000085
Pa 231 Sv/Bq > 17 0.000034
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000907
Th 232sec Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000846
Th 232 Sv/Bq > 17 0.000025
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.000016
Th 228+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000436
K 40 Sv/Bq > 17 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq worker 0.0000291
U nat Sv/Bq worker 0.0000128
Th 230 Sv/Bq worker 0.0000072
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq worker 0.00000223
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq worker 0.00000116
Po 210 Sv/Bq worker 0.0000022
U 235sec Sv/Bq worker 0.000083
U 235+ Sv/Bq worker 0.0000057
Pa 231 Sv/Bq worker 0.000017
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq worker 0.0000603
Th 232sec Sv/Bq worker 0.0000482
Th 232 Sv/Bq worker 0.000012
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq worker 0.00000171
Th 228+ Sv/Bq worker 0.0000345
K 40 Sv/Bq worker 0
European commission, Practical use of the concepts of clearance and ezemption (Part II), EC, Belgium (2002)
 ingestion ̴(RP-122)
˼ ñ ǯ ̴
U 238sec Sv/Bq <1 0.0000464
U nat Sv/Bq <1 0.000000771
Th 230 Sv/Bq <1 0.0000041
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq <1 0.0000047
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq <1 0.00000842
Po 210 Sv/Bq <1 0.000026
U 235sec Sv/Bq <1 0.000052
U 235+ Sv/Bq <1 0.000000354
Pa 231 Sv/Bq <1 0.000013
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq <1 0.0000386
Th 232sec Sv/Bq <1 0.0000412
Th 232 Sv/Bq <1 0.0000046
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq <1 0.00003
Th 228+ Sv/Bq <1 0.00000655
K 40 Sv/Bq <1 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000143
U nat Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000000284
Th 230 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00000041
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000000962
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00000361
Po 210 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000088
U 235sec Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000057
U 235+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.000000133
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000013
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00000427
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00000725
Th 232 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00000045
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.0000057
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0.00000109
K 40 Sv/Bq 1 - 2 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000079
U nat Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000000187
Th 230 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.00000031
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000000621
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000022
Po 210 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000044
U 235sec Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000004
U 235+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 8.62E-08
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000011
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.00000281
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.00000436
Th 232 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.00000035
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.0000034
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0.000000604
K 40 Sv/Bq 2 - 7 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000583
U nat Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000000153
Th 230 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000024
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000000801
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000019
Po 210 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000026
U 235sec Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000296
U 235+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 7.17E-08
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000092
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000197
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000462
Th 232 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.00000029
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.0000039
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0.000000431
K 40 Sv/Bq 7 - 12 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000548
U nat Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000000149
Th 230 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000022
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000015
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000019
Po 210 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000016
U 235sec Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000246
U 235+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 7.04E-08
Pa 231 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000008
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000159
Th 232sec Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000586
Th 232 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.00000025
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.0000053
Th 228+ Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0.000000307
K 40 Sv/Bq 12 - 17 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000257
U nat Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000001
Th 230 Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000021
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000028
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.000000691
Po 210 Sv/Bq > 17 0.0000012
U 235sec Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000197
U 235+ Sv/Bq > 17 4.73E-08
Pa 231 Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000071
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000121
Th 232sec Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000106
Th 232 Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000023
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.00000069
Th 228+ Sv/Bq > 17 0.000000143
K 40 Sv/Bq > 17 0
U 238sec Sv/Bq worker 0.00000257
U nat Sv/Bq worker 0.0000001
Th 230 Sv/Bq worker 0.00000021
Ra 226+ Sv/Bq worker 0.00000028
Pb 210+ Sv/Bq worker 0.000000691
Po 210 Sv/Bq worker 0.0000012
U 235sec Sv/Bq worker 0.00000197
U 235+ Sv/Bq worker 4.73E-08
Pa 231 Sv/Bq worker 0.00000071
Ac 227+ Sv/Bq worker 0.00000121
Th 232sec Sv/Bq worker 0.00000106
Th 232 Sv/Bq worker 0.00000023
Ra 228+ Sv/Bq worker 0.00000069
Th 228+ Sv/Bq worker 0.000000143
K 40 Sv/Bq worker 0
European commission, Practical use of the concepts of clearance and ezemption (Part II), EC, Belgium (2002)
 ׻ (RP-122)
Eext = Dext Te Fd A (1)
Einh = Dinh Te Fd Br Cdust A (2)
Eing = Ding Te Fd Ring A (3)
where
Eext, Einh, and Eing are the effective doses due to external gannma radiation, inhalation, and ingestion exposures (Sv y-1).
Dext, Dinh, and Ding are the dose coefficients for external gannma radiation, inhalation, and ingestion exposures.(Sv h-1 per Bq g-1 for Dext) (Sv Bq-1 for Dinh, and Ding)
Te is the exposure time (y-1)
Fd is the dilution factor
A is the activity in samples (Bq g-1)
Br is the breathing rate (m3 h-1)
Cdust is the dust concentration during exposure time (g m-3), and
Ring is the ingestion rate (g h-1)
Natural resources such as ore are mainly included U-238 series, Th-232 series and K-40. Therefore, following equations were used to estimate a total effective dose for workers.
Eext (total) = Eext (U)+ Eext (Th)+ Eext (K) (4)
Einh (total) = Einh (U)+ Einh (Th)+ Einh (K) (5)
Eing (total) = Eing (U)+ Eing (Th)+ Eing (K) (6)
Etotal = Eext (total)+ Einh (total)+ Eing (total) (7)
where
Eext (U), Eext (Th), and Eext (K) are the Eext for U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40, respectively. (Sv y-1)
Einh (U), Einh (Th), and Einh (K) are the Einh for U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40, respectively. (Sv y-1)
Eing (U), Eing (Th), and Eing (K) are the Eing for U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40, respectively. (Sv y-1), and
Etotal is the total effective doses of amount of external gannma radiation, inhalation, and ingestion exposures due to U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40. (Sv y-1)

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